Pregnancy

PregnancyA healthy young woman who has sexual intercourse twice or more times a week, and does not apply any contraceptive method, has 90% seems to conceive within 12 months. Conception comes immediately after the release of a egg cell (ovum) from one of two ovaries, roughly in the middle of the menstrual cycle. Eggs travel via the uterine tube to the womb (uterus). If you have a sexual intercourse at that time, millions of sperm from your partner pass from the vagina to the uterus, and into the uterine tube. Here, one sperm and the egg are joined, and the fertilization occurs. The impregnated egg will arrive in the uterus a few days later, where it is implanted into the mucous membrane. This happens roughly at a time when you should get another menstruation. Therefore, when you start to doubt that you may be pregnant, a baby (embryo) is already developing rapidly in the uterus.

Full pregnancy lasts about 38 weeks after the conception. Conception usually comes in the middle of the menstrual cycle; however, since the exact date is rarely possible to determine, doctors count pregnancy from the first day of the last menstrual period. In other words, for a woman who has been in the midst of a regular 28-day menstrual cycle, it is said that she has been pregnant for four weeks, though she has been after two weeks of conception. This pregnancy calculation, i.e. moving the start of it two weeks in advance, continues until birth. Therefore, it is said that the average pregnancy lasts for 40 weeks.

Conception

Egg development

A woman has two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus, containing many thousands of undeveloped eggs. After puberty, usually one egg deleops in one of the ovaries. This egg grows, surrounded by about a hundred other cells that feed it – we call it ovarian follicles. The follicle is filled with fluid. Approximately in the middle of the menstrual cycle, the follicle ruptures and releases a developed egg (we call this ovulation) which than enters the uterine tube.

Sperm development

Sperm (spermatozoids) are tiny cells that develop in numerous seminal canals in male testicles. Sperm from testicle passes into epididymis, and then into the vas deferens where they are ”stored” until ejaculation.

Fertilization

Sperm fertilizes eggs in the uterine tube immediately after ovulation. Although a man ejaculates about one million of sperms during the intercourse, only one of them can fertilize the egg. The core of the sperm connects to the core of the egg, after which the process of cell division begins. The cells are divided every few hours while the egg is traveling (in the uterine tube) to the uterus.

Embryo development

Until the twelfth week of pregnancy, an organism developing in the womb is called an embryo. From the 12th week (and until birth) we call it fetus. Embryo develops very fast. In the fifth week of pregnancy embryo is as big as a rice grain, but in the twelfth week it is already about 60 mm long. After 28 days, the largest and most developed part is the heart. The limbs are beginning to develop. Nervous system, eyes and ears are present after six weeks. The ratio of individual parts of the embryo differ significantly from those in the adult man.

Changing of the shape of a female body

In the first few weeks there are no visible changes in the shape of the body, although your breasts may look somewhat bigger with a feeling of sensitivity and weight. After about 12 weeks, the uterus is so expanded that it can no longer remain hidden in the pelvis, and you can feel it through the abdominal wall. In the 20th week, the belly can already be bulged. At the end of pregnancy, the head of the child usually slightly drops down and places it in the pelvic cavity. This will ease your breathing, though you may have to urinate frequently.

Placenta

In the early stages of development, the baby gets food by the mother’s bloodstream via the ”root” or the trophoblast. After 20 days we call them placenta. The fetus is connected to the placenta with umbilical cord that comes from the place we will later call the navel. The blood of the fetus circulates the placenta and absorbs the nutrients from the mother’s blood (and expels waste in it), which is really similar to ”work” of the blood during ther breathing (blood takes oxygen from the lungs and releases carbon dioxide in them). This exchange is stimulated by hairlike projections (villi) that increase the surface of the placenta.

Amniocentesis
Anemia in pregnancy
Sepsis puerperalis
Caesarean section
Depression after childbirth
Episiotomy
Physical activity during pregnancy
Forceps
Polyhydramnios
Incompetent cervix
Nutrition during pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy
Bleeding after childbirth
Bleeding during pregnancy
Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
Placenta previa
Rh incompatibility
Abnormal position of the fetus
Miscarriage
Childbirth
Preeclampsia and eclampsia
Premature rupture of membranes
Premature birth
Placenta accreta
Problems with sleep in pregnancy
Prolonged pregnancy
Prolonged labor
Varicose veins in pregnancy
Labor induction
Death of a baby in the womb
Intercourse after childbirth
Heart diseases in pregnancy
Diabetes in pregnancy
Problems with breasts
Mitigating birth pain
Ultrasound
High blood pressure during pregnancy
Fetal growth restriction
Constipation in pregnancy
Heartburn during pregnancy