After a year of sexual intercourse without contraception, there won’t be a conception in 10% of pairs. The causes of infertility or low fertility are numerous; here, we will talk about the most common, such as disorder in egg and semen production, structural abnormalities of the sex organs, and psychological factors (e.g. stress and anxiety).
If you intend to have a baby, you need to know some basic things about sex life. You have to find out which ones are the most fertile days and make sure that your partner’s way of life does not cause reduced seed ”production”.
If you did not conceive after 12 months, you should both go to the doctor. The doctor will first determine whether the intercourse is sufficiently regular and timely enough, as well as possible psychological or sexual problems such as partial or occasional impotence, which in itself requires treatment. If the doctor finds a condition or disorder that can be corrected, he or she will advise you on the therapy and tell you to keep trying in the next few months. If there is no conception after that, you will probably be directed to a special clinic for further tests.
For a partner, a microscopic examination of the seeds is first made to check if there is enough healthy sperm in it. The number of sperm (spermatozoon) can be small for a number of reasons – including emotional stress, excessive work and fatigue, excessive alcohol consumption, and elevated temperature in the scrotum (e.g. due to varicocele).
Few days without sexual intercourse (before ovulation) will increase the number of sperm. In some cases, the number of sperm can be increased by drugs or hormones. If there is no sperm in the seed, a seed tissue biopsy will determine whether or not the sperm is being produced. However, little can be done if the number of sperm is small or if abnormal.
In women, the first thing that needs to be done is to check if the ovulation happens normally (if you have irregular menstruation, then maybe something is wrong with ovulation). If something is wrong with ovulation and egg production, it can be solved (in 50% of cases) with the hormone injections and/or medications. They should be taken exactly as directed to avoid multiple pregnancies.
Fallopian tube obstruction (possibly due to an earlier pelvic inflammatory disease) can be detected by various methods – e.g. laparoscopy or insufflation. In some cases, the abnormality of the fallopian tube can be corrected by surgery. Recently, a method is used to remove a mature egg from the ovary, fertilize with the sperm of the partner and then implanted into the uterus.