Sinusitis is the inflammation of the sinus mucosa as a result of bacterial or viral infection. Among several connected sinuses (cavities around the nose) frontal sinuses (in the forehead just above the eyes) and maxillary sinuses (in the upper jaw) are the most affected.
The lining of the main nasal cavity continues to mucous membranes lining the sinuses, so the microorganisms that cause sinusitis expand to sinuses from the nose. This usually happens becuase of cold, which is a viral infection; complications arise due to secondary infections caused by bacteria.
After several days of cold, when you expect that you will be better, nasal congestion is getting worse, and the amount of greenish discharge increases. Later, your nose shuts up even more because the aisles between the nose and sinuses have clogged, and with it draining of discharge stops. You have to breathe through your mouth, you begin to speak through your nose and you are completely indisposed.
If the infection affected the frontal sinuses, the main symptom is headache over one or both eyes; your head will gurt the most in the morning when you wake up. The lower part of the forehead, just above the eyes, is very sensitive to the touch, and you will feel the throbbing pain when you bow your head. If the infection affected maxillary sinus, you will feel a pain in one or both cheeks. You may feel that you have a toothache in the upper jaw. Sometimes, dental treatment can cause sinusitis, because the infection spread from the tooth root through the bone into the sinus.
Even though sinusitis is very common some people never get it, while others get sick as soon as they catch cold; some people may get sick if they jump in the water without closing up their nose. Damage of the nasal bones or entering the foreign body if the nostril may cause onset. Deformity of the nose, such as septal deviation, can increase sensitivity due to blockage of the nasal corridor.
The risk is minimal if sinusitis is treated with antibiotics. Before their discoveries, the infection sometimes spread through the mucous membranes of the sinuses in the bones, and even in the brain. Such complications are almost nonexistent today.
What to do?
Try the recommended measures of self-help (below). If symptoms persist for more than three to four days, please consult your doctor who will probably confirm the diagnosis of sinusitis after examination of the mouth and nose by gently pressing the bottom of the sinuses over the eyes and above the face.
Self-help: stay indoors, in a room with a steady temperature and high moisture content; dry, overheated rooms can make symptoms much more difficult. Carefully wipe the nose with a tissue that must be destroyed after use. Take aspirin or paracetamol to relieve pain and inhale the steam from the basin with hot water.
Professional help: in addition to broad-spectrum antibiotics, your doctor may recommend a means of decongestant of the nose in the form of tablets or as drops or nasal spray. Means for decongestion reduce swelling of mucous membranes and thus expand the airways, but they must be used only according to the instructions in the package or on the advice of a doctor; if you don’t follow the instructions, the drug may do more harm than good.
Continued treatment is unnecessary if sinusitis does not last; otherwise your doctol will recommend a minor surgery under local anesthesia; first, the bone between the nose and sinuses is pierced to open additional nasal passage, and then, sinuses are washed with sterile water. This facilitates the blockage. A liquid with washed content is usually given to the analysis to detect pathogens and the best way to prevent infections. It may be necessary (although rarely) another small operation to improve drainage.