BreathingWe are breathing so we can ”supply” the body with oxygen, which is essential for energy and in order to get rid of carbon dioxide, a waste product in the creation of energy. The central part of the respiratory system are the lungs where oxygen we breathe is exchanged with carbon dioxide from the blood. The channel, through which we breathe air into lungs and exhale it (the respiratory tract), consisting primarily of the nose, throat and trachea (windpipe). Deep in the chest windpipe divides into two main bronchi, one for each lung and bronchus every branch in the lung into smaller bronchioles. All bronchioles end in cavities like the balloon which are called alveoli (pulmonary vesicles) and which has about 300 million in each lung. The vital exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide takes place in tiny blood vessels in the thin walls of the alveoli.

With the work of the muscles, the air is sucked into the lungs. The main muscle is called diaphragm (dome muscular surface, attached to the lower ribs), which separates the chest cavity from the abdomen (belly).

When the diaphragm tightens, along with other muscles between the ribs, the air is drawn; when the muscles relax, the air is pressed out by the respiratory tract up and out of the body (usually through the nostrils) elastic contraction of the lungs. If this mechanism works well, breathing is almost invisible activity. However, in the lungs, in essential parts of the respiratory tract or during the muscular work, several disorders can occur.

The first group deals with the problems that affect the nose and air space behind it (nasal passage and sinuses). The second group includes disorders of the throat, including the larynx (at the top of the windpipe) where the products are voice and pharynx (pharynx – the tube that leads from the nasal cavity, and coming to the point where the esophagus is separated from the trachea): throat (larynx) and throat (pharynx) are also related to disorders of the larynx and pharynx were indistinguishable. The third group includes the most common diseases of the lungs and chest, including diseases of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles and alveoli.

How do we breathe?

The air we breathe through the nose is heated and moistened by small blood vessels of the nasal cavity to the surface before it enters the lungs. Tiny hairs in the nose filters the air to prevent the entry of foreign bodies, for example, dust particles in the lungs. When we breathe, the diaphragm, which is a dome-shaped when relaxed, completely retracted.

At the same time, the muscles between the ribs are tightening and pull the chest up and expand outward. These movements increase the volume of the chest, and therefore, the lungs expand and allow the entry of air. The stronger the muscles, it enters the lungs more air. Speed ​​inhalation and exhalation is determined mainly by the amount of carbon dioxide that needs to come out of the bloodstream. When we exhale, the muscles of the chest and diaphragm relax. The chest goes down, and lungs, which are very elastic, are tightening and expelling the air. The air which we breathe out contains little oxygen. If it weren’t so, the mouth-to-mouth method would not be possible.