Types of Hernia

Types of HerniaEpigastric hernia

A weak spot in the central abdominal muscles makes it possible to drop fat tissue covering the intestine between the navel and the chest bone.
Symptoms Hernia is usually small and does not have to create a visible swelling, but sometimes it can cause poor digestion, burping and vomiting.
Frequency Very rare. It accounts for only 2% of all hernias.
Dangers Painful incarceration is possible, albeit very rare.
Treatment If the hernia does not cause trouble, surgery may not be needed. If needed, the average stay at the hospital is 2 to 5 days.
Reconvalescence: 2-4 weeks.

Paraumbilical hernia

Abdominal wall muscles may sometimes weaken just above or below the navel.
Symptoms General feeling of weight in the abdomen, sometimes accompanied by pain. The swelling can be seen (but not always) on the navel.
Frequency It is very common, and is 5 times more common in women. Overweight women and those who had more children are especially prone to paraumbilical hernia.
Dangers Possible risk of obstruction and / or incarceration.
Treatment The operation is usually recommended. Average stay in hospital is 2 to 5 days; reconvalescence 4 to 6 weeks.

Femoral hernia

Femoral herania appears on a similar location as inguinal hernia, but slightly lower.
Symptoms In some cases there are no symptoms or swelling. Many such hernias are discovered only when they are obstructed.
Frequency One person out of 250 has one (or two) femoral hernias. Especially prone to femoral hernia are obese women who had many children.
Dangers Since the opening through which femoral hernia falls is small, the risk of obstruction or incarceration is high.
Treatment Same as in inguinal hernia.

Inguinal hernia

There are two types of inguinal hernia – direct and indirect. In direct, organs in the abdominal cavity are diverting the weak muscles of the abdominal wall around the groin. Indirect, which is 20 times more common in men, bulges in inguinal passage.
Symptoms Bulging or maybe just a sense of weight in the groin area.
Frequency One in 60 people have one, and very often two inguinal hernias. Both types are more common in men.
Dangers Possible complications are obstruction and incarceration.
Treatment The operation removes the bulging and strengthens the weak muscles. An average stay in hospital is 2 days; reconvalescence about 4 weeks.

Umbilical hernia

This hernia appears as a soft bulging around the navel of a newborn, whose abdominal wall has not yet fully developed.
Symptoms Umbilical hernia rarely creates problems to a newborn. Small swelling usually occurs when the baby cries.
Frequency There are no statistical data, though this hernia is very common, because umbilical hernias can pass by themselves in a year or less after birth.
Dangers Since the opening is wide, there is practically no danger of incarceration or obstruction.
Treatment If the umbilical hernia lasts or creates problems, the child is usually operated when he/she is 3 to 5 years old. An average stay in hospital is 2 to 5 days, reconvalescence is 2 weeks.

Incisional hernia

It occurs as a result of surgery in the abdominal cavity. Cut muscles of the abdominal wall heal, but they are weakened, so the bowels can protrude through a weak spot.
Symptoms Incisional hernias almost always produce visible bulging with abdominal pain.
Frequency Incesional hernia often appears in overweight people who do not move after the surgery in an abdominal area. It also often occurs in older or skinny people.

Surgical treatment

The operation of a weakened muscle is usually performed when hernia causes pain or when there is a danger of incarceration or obstruction.
Surgery: Depending on the site and the weight of the hernia you will get local or general anesthesia. Above the hernia a small cut is made and the tissue is pushed back to the place. After that, the muscles tighten together. The operation usually takes less than an hour.
After surgery: The doctor will advise you to stand up the same day or the first day after the surgery. The surgical site will hurt you, so you will get a painkiller. After two to five days you should leave the hospital.
Sutures: On the weakened area of ​​the muscular wall.
Reconvalescence: After a few days you will be able to return to work and accept common daily activities, but your doctor will advise you not to lift anything difficult in the next 3 months.