The heart has four valves:
– mitral valve, which regulates the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle on the left side
– tricuspid valve, which regulates the blood flow from the atrium to the ventricle on the right side
– aortic valve, which regulates the volume of blood from the left ventricle to the aorta
– pulmonary valve, which regulates the output from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery that leads the blood into the lungs to oxygenate
Inflammation of the valves can cause one (or sometimes both) of two types of damage: stenosis and insufficiency. Stenosis is a thickening of the valve, which is why its opening narrows; insufficiency is a distortion of the valve that prevents the complete closure of the valve.