Glaucoma is one of the most common and most severe disorders in people over the age of 60. Treatment in the initial stage is important because untreated glaucoma may ultimately lead to blindness.
The cervical body in the eye continually produces a liquid called the aqueous humour and which circulates from the area behind the iris through the pupil in the chamber between the iris and the cornea. In the healthy eye, this fluid is pulled out of the eye through the tissue network in the anterior chamber (a compound of the iris and the cornea), and then into the channel (Schlemm’s channel) leading into the small veins in the outer part of the eye. However, in some eyes, fluid drain is disrupted. As a result, the aqueous sumour runs slower than it is produced – or does not run at all – leading to increased pressure in the eyeball.
Pressure causes collapse of the blood vessels (in the back of the eye) that “nourish” the nerve fiber of the optic nerve disc. Without blood, the nervous fibers begins to dry up and, with it, the vision starts to weaken. Nerve damage is irreversible, and te result is loss of vision. Therefore, glaucoma should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible so that loss of vision is minimized. Causes, scope, and types of glaucoma vary considerably. The most common forms of glaucoma are acute glaucoma and chronic glaucoma simplex.