The mole is the surface of the skin with a changed color that has been present since birth or occurs shortly after birth and lasts for at least a few months. (A change in color that disappears several days after birth is usually the result of blood loss that occurs during childbirth or birth of a child with a forceps.) The mole may be the capillary mass of the skin (nevus) or stain on the surface of the skin.
Three main types of nevus
Capillary nevus is a flat, pink or pink brown spot. Many newborns have capillary nevus, most of which fade and disappear before they are 18 months old.
Cavernous angioma is a reddish, raised spot, usually not larger than 1 cm in diameter. They can appear on any part of the body. At birth it’s so small that we can only notice it after a few days. It grows rapidly in a few weeks and then increases proportionally to the growth of the infant. Occasionally, when a fat tissue is found beneath the angioma, redness occurs on the surface of a soft lump that is raised about 10 mm above the skin. When the baby is six months old, small, scattered white spots can be seen on the mole. They spread and gradually replace red tissue, while simultaneously the surface of the nevus falls. When the baby is about three years old, nevus usually disappears, leaving the area of pale skin behind.
The third type of mole is so-called firemark (naevus flammeus), a purple color. It often covers a large surface, sometimes partially raised, and appears generally on the face or limbs. Firemark is retained even in adulthood, although it may sometimes fade.
Another type of mole is hyperpigmented mole, most commonly flat, shaped irregularly and in colors of white coffee (commonly known as ”cafe au lait”). It usually appearss as one or two small spots, but in some cases such moles may be in groups or large. Some children are born with pigmented moles through which their hair grows. Those moles are generally permanent. The cause of moles is not known. Basically, they are not dangerous, and the only real problem is their looks. Large, ugly and permanent moles can be treated with plastic surgery or other ways when the baby is three or four years old. The surgeon will sometimes accelerate the spontaneous disappearance of cavernous nevus by injecting warm salty water into the mole (under local anesthesia). The simple, improvised way to conceal an ugly mole is by applying a skin cream that can be bought in the apothecary. Large cavernous angioma occasionally bursts by itself or after a blow, but bleeding usually stops if you press it for a few minutes with your finger.